Essays and Current Affairs

Urdu language and its Literature A Brief Essay

Urdu Language and Literature

Language is the only source by which one can express his ideas and feelings. It plays a good role in building the character of an individual as well as a nation. Language brings closer to each other and it creates a sense of harmony among the people. Language is a source of communication. All knowledge is acquired and imparted through the medium of language. The language of a society reflects its culture and civilization. Urdu is the product of the centuries of cultural interaction between the Hindu and the Muslim Communities of India,

Historical Background Of Urdu:

Urdu evolved over a period of centuries by cultural interaction between local people of the north of the continent and Muslims of Arabia, Iran, and Turkey. The origin of this language is Prakrit, an Aryan language. This script of Urdu is a similar form of Persian. It remained in use for about fifteen hundred years. Gradually this language changed into Brij Bhasha. Urdu is a word of the Turkish language and its literal meaning is camp (Lashkar). When the Muslims established their firm rule in the Subcontinent, they recruited people into their army belonging to different nations. There were Turks, Arabs, Pushtoons, Punjabis, Bengalis, Hindi-speaking, Persians, and others. The interaction between these languages gave birth to a new language called Urdu. Urdu was evolved by the interaction of people in the army, due to this it was Called Urdu which means Lashkar. Initially, Urdu was known as Hindi or Hindavi, later on it was called as Rekhta, the famous poet of Rekhta was Mushafi. Urdu was also known as Urdu-e-Mualla

Urdu During Shah Jahan Period:

In 1647 Shah Jahan shifted his Capital from Agra to Delhi. He made various efforts to develop the Urdu Language. There was a bazaar of notable peoples in Delhi, which was called Urdu-e-Mualla. Mirza Ghalib and Zoaq were the famous poets of that time. During Shah Jahan’s period, Urdu made great progress. The first Ghazal Deewan of Urdu was written by Sultan Muhammad Qulli. Mir Taqi Mir, Mirza Rafiq Soda, and Mir Dard played an important role in the development of Urdu.

Urdu After War of Independence:

The progress of the development of the Urdu language continued after the war of Independence. Allama Iqbal used Urdu in his poetry to awaken the nation. Maulana Altaf Hussain Halli wrote his famous Musadas-e-Halli in Urdu. Maulana Shibli wrote the Islamic history in Urdu. In the twentieth century, religious Scholars like Maulana Abdul-Kalam Azad, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, and Maulana Abul-Ala Modoudi worked on religious literature in Urdu and introduced new trends in Urdu prose. At the end of the 18th Century Urdu had taken the place of Persian as the language of Muslims in the subcontinent.

Rich treasure of prose and poetry:

The language of Urdu possesses a very valuable treasure of poetry and prose. The writers and poets have contributed their most to its development. Maulana Hali, Deputy Nazir Ahmed Mirza Ghalib, Maulana Shibli Nomani, Ameer Khusro, and many others adopted this language in their poetry and writings. Sir Syed wrote for the re-awakening of the Muslims of sub Continent. According to Abdul Haq.

“It is Sir Syed due to whom Urdu has made such great progress within a period of only one century.” Maulvi Abdul Haq who is known as Baba-e-Urdu devoted his whole life to the development of Urdu.

Urdu as a National Language of Pakistan:

The national language is a language which is spoken and understood throughout the country. Urdu is a lingua franca; it is spoken and understood by the people living in all areas of Pakistan. Urdu has a very close relation with all the regional languages of Pakistan. Urdu is a symbol of national unity. After Independence Quaid-e-Azam said in clear-cut words that the National language of Pakistan would be Urdu. He said: “Let me make it clear that the national language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language. Without one state language no nation can remain tied up solidity together”.

The national language is the identity of a nation. When we are in other countries we are identified as Pakistani just because of our national language. That is why; every nation gives respect and importance to their national language.

The people of Pakistan are one nation; therefore their thinking, aims, and objectives are common. Their progress and prosperity depend upon their unity and brotherhood. An important factor in achieving this unity and brotherhood is Urdu. Urdu has become a source of expressing feelings, thoughts and aspirations. People of two different areas can easily understand each other ideas and thoughts by Urdu: Urdu serves as a means of communication and is a binding force between all the four provinces of Pakistan. People living in different provinces realize that rather than of speaking different languages, they are joined together by one that is the national language which is the heritage of all.

History, Islamic Studies, Political Science, and other subjects are taught up to M.A level in Urdu Lectures on Islamic education and religion are also delivered in Urdu throughout Pakistan.

“Urdu is a part of our cultural Heritage”


As the National language of the country, this is the binding force in different parts of Pakistan. The officers, doctors, and teachers have adopted the Urdu language in their official work and the Government has published a dictionary containing Urdu terms for office work. The “Anjuman-e-Taraqqi-e-Urdu” and Development Board of Urdu are trying to give Urdu a place in society and it is hoped that Urdu will find its place in society within a short period of time.

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